HOUSE OF SAXE-COBURG AND GOTHA

Wappen_Sachsen_Coburg_Gotha

The House of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha (in German, Haus Sachsen Coburg und Gotha) is a German dynasty, in particular, the line of the Saxon House of Wettin that ruled the Ernestine duchies, including the duchy of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha.

Although the House of Coburg reaches back in history to the 1400s, we start our family tree in the latter half of the 18th century with Franz Friedrich Anton, the sixth Duke of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld (from 1826 on, the house was called Saxe-Coburg and Gotha). Through the first marriage of Ernst, Franz Anton’s eldest son, to Luise Princess of Saxe-Gotha-Altenburg, the house acquired considerably more territory and importance. The descendants of Franz Friedrich Anton were at the top of several European monarchies. Members of their successor families are currently heads of government in many countries: Belgium through the descendants of King Léopold I, and in the Commonwealth realm through the descendants of Prince Consort Albert. Due to anti-German sentiment in the United Kingdom during World War I, King George V of the United Kingdom and Ireland changed the name of his branch from “Saxe-Coburg and Gotha” to “Windsor” in 1917. The same happened in Belgium, where it became “van België” or “de Belgique.”

Franz Friedrich Anton

Duke of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld, Duke of Saxony (since 1800)

(Coburg, 15 July 1750 – Coburg, 9 December 1806)
Franz Friedrich Anton had to take over a practically ruined duchy. But he was a very talented man and – despite of his lack of money – started to collect engravings of the most excelling artists between the 15th and 18th century, thus founding the Coburg Collection of Graphics with its today’s 220.000 pieces of art. He is a patrilinear ancestor of Queen Elizabeth II of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, King Philippe of the Belgians and former tsar Simeon II (1943 – 1946 during the monarchy) and prime minister of Bulgaria (between 2001 and 2005).

Hereditary Prince of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld (till 1800)

Auguste Karoline Sophie

Duchess of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld, Duchess of Saxony (since 1800)

(Saalburg-Ebersdorf, 19 January 1757 – Coburg, 16 November 1831)
Auguste had ten children, born between 1778 and 1792. One was stillborn and two died during their childhood. The other seven were married to European high nobility and these marriages were arranged under strong personal care. Auguste was the maternal grandmother of Queen Victoria of the United Kingdom and Ireland and the paternal grandmother of Albert, Prince Consort.

Princess Reuss
Princess of Ebersdorf
Princess of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld, Duchess of Saxony (since 1777)

Ernst

Ernst I Duke of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha, Duke of Saxony (since 1826)

5

(Coburg, 2 January 1784 – Gotha, 29 January 1844)
When Ernst (Ernst Anton Carl Ludwig) succeeded his father in 1806, Duke Ernst III’s country – Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld – was under French control. Ernst already had to fight against Napoléon as a general of the Prussians. The peace of Tilsit in 1807 enabled the young duke to get back his territories, having the Russians on his side. His sister Juliane was married to Konstantin, the brother of Alexander I Tsar of Russia. After the Congress of Vienna and its hence resulting gain of territory which Ernst should sell to Prussia years later, he could achieve Gotha that belonged to the territory of his former wife. Now he became Duke of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha. He proved to be a patron of arts and sciences and the first German sovereign to rebuild castles in a romantic neo-Gothic style, embedded in parks of British landscape style. His younger brother Leopold (Georg Christian Friedrich) was later elected the first King of the Belgians.

Hereditary Prince of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld
Ernst III (last sovereign) Duke of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld, Duke of Saxony (since 1806)

The first Duke of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha was Ernst I, who ruled the duchy from 1826 until his death in 1844. He had previously been Duke of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld (as Ernst III) from 1806 until the duchy was reorganized in 1826. Ernst’s younger brother Léopold became King of the Belgians in 1831, and his descendants continue to serve as Belgian heads of state. Léopold’s only daughter, Princess Charlotte of Belgium, was the consort of Maximilian I of Mexico, known as the Empress Carlota of Mexico, in the 1860s. Ernst’s nephew Ferdinand married Queen Maria II of Portugal, and his descendants continued to rule Portugal until that country became a republic in 1910.

Duke Ernst I’s second son, Prince Albert (1819–1861), married Queen Victoria in 1840, and thus is the progenitor of the United Kingdom’s current royal family, called “Windsor” since 1917. In 1826, a cadet branch of the House of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha inherited the Hungarian princely estate of Koháry, and converted to Roman Catholicism. Its family members managed to marry an Imperial Princess of Brazil, an Archduchess of Austria, a Royal Princess of “the French,” a Royal Princess of Belgium and a Royal Princess of Saxony. [A scion of this branch, also named Ferdinand, a Prince, and then Tsar of Bulgaria, Ferdinand’s descendants continued to rule in Bulgaria until 1946. The current Head of the House of Bulgaria, the former Tsar Simeon II, was deposed and exiled during World War II, but returned to serve as Bulgaria’s Prime Minister from 2001 to 2005.

The Ducal House consisted of all male-line descendants of Franz Friedrich Anton, Duke of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld, legitimately born of an equal marriage, males and females (the latter until their marriage), their wives in equal and authorized marriages, and their widows until remarriage. According to the House law of the Duchy of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha, the full title of the Duke was:

Ernst, Duke of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha, Jülich, Cleves and Berg, also Angria and Westphalia, Landgrave in Thuringia, Margrave of Meissen, Princely Count of Henneberg, Count of the Mark and Ravensberg, Lord of Ravenstein and Tonna, et cetera.

Ernst I Duke of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha,

Duke of Saxony

Portrait of Ernst I Duke of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha

Ernst

Ernst I Duke of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha, Duke of Saxony (since 1826)

(Coburg, 2 January 1784 – Gotha, 29 January 1844)
When Ernst (Ernst Anton Carl Ludwig) succeeded his father in 1806, Duke Ernst III’s country – Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld – was under French control. Ernst already had to fight against Napoléon as a general of the Prussians. The peace of Tilsit in 1807 enabled the young duke to get back his territories, having the Russians on his side. His sister Juliane was married to Konstantin, the brother of Alexander I Tsar of Russia. After the Congress of Vienna and its hence resulting gain of territory which Ernst should sell to Prussia years later, he could achieve Gotha that belonged to the territory of his former wife. Now he became Duke of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha. He proved to be a patron of arts and sciences and the first German sovereign to rebuild castles in a romantic neo-Gothic style, embedded in parks of British landscape style. His younger brother Leopold (Georg Christian Friedrich) was later elected the first King of the Belgians.

Hereditary Prince of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld
Ernst III (last sovereign) Duke of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld, Duke of Saxony (since 1806)

Luise

Duchess of Saxony (since 1826)

1

(Gotha, 21 December 1800 – Paris, 30 August 1831)
Princess Luise (Dorothea Pauline Charlotte Fredericka Auguste) was the only daughter of Augustus, Duke of Saxe-Gotha-Altenburg and his first wife Louise Charlotte of Mecklenburg Schwerin, daughter of Friedrich Franz I, Grand Duke of Mecklenburg-Schwerin and Princess Louise of Saxe-Gotha-Altenburg. She was the first wife of Ernst I Duke of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld and the mother of Duke Ernst II and Prince Albert, husband of Queen Victoria.

Princess of Saxe-Gotha-Altenburg
Duchess of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld, Duchess of Saxony (1817 – 1826)

Issue:

Ernst II Duke of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha, Duke of Saxony
Albert Prince Consort of the United Kingdom

Marie

Duchess of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha, Duchess of Saxony (since 1832)

2

(Coburg, 17 September 1799 – Gotha, 24 September 1860)
Marie (Antoinette Friederike Auguste Anna) was a daughter of Alexander Duke of Wurttemberg and Antoinette Princess of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld. She spent several years of her childhood in Russia, but always felt like a German princess and was greatly influenced by her grandmother Auguste. When she married Ernst I, her uncle, she became Duchess of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha. She never had her own children, but was a well-meaning stepmother to Duke Ernst II and Prince Albert.

Princess of Württemberg

Ernst

Ernst II Duke of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha, Duke of Saxony (since 1844)

1

(Coburg, 21 June 1818 – Reinhardsbrunn near Gotha, 22 August 1893)
Ernst was the first son of Ernst I. The education of Duke Ernst II (Ernst August Karl Johann Léopold Alexander Eduard) was influenced by his uncle Léopold I, King of the Belgians. After the revolution of 1848 he achieved liberal reform, and a common constitution for the two duchies. He was instrumental in founding the predecessor of today’s Social Democratic Party, and was the patron of a sport-shooting association, gymnastic tournaments, and singing competitions that still exist today. He was especially fond of theatre and admired Richard Wagner, even composing an opera of his own.

Hereditary Prince of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha

Albert

Prince Consort of the United Kingdom (since 1840)

2

(Rosenau Castle near Coburg, 26 August 1819 – Windsor Castle, Berkshire, England, 14 December 1861)
The education of Prince Albert (Francis Albert Augustus Charles Emmanuel; later The Prince Consort) was scrutinized by his uncle, King Léopold I of the Belgians, who also arranged his marriage at age 20 to his first cousin, Queen Victoria of the United Kingdom and Ireland. The couple would ultimately have nine children. He would become the most important adviser to the Queen, with a strong commitment to social responsibility and a keen interest in science. He originated the first World Exposition in 1851 in London.

Prince of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha, Duke of Saxony

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Albert, Prince Consort

Victoria’s family in 1846 by Franz Xaver Winterhalter left to right: Prince Alfred and the Prince of Wales; the Queen and Prince Albert; Princesses Alice, Helena, and Victoria

Albert

Prince Consort of Great Britain and Ireland (since 1840)

(Rosenau Castle near Coburg, 26 August 1819 – Windsor Castle, Berkshire, England, 14 December 1861)
The education of Prince Albert (Francis Albert Augustus Charles Emmanuel; later The Prince Consort) was scrutinized by his uncle, King Léopold I of the Belgians, who also arranged his marriage at age 20 to his first cousin, Queen Victoria of the United Kingdom and Ireland. The couple would ultimately have nine children. He would become the most important adviser to the Queen, with a strong commitment to social responsibility and a keen interest in science. He originated the first World Exposition in 1851 in London.

Prince of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha, Duke of Saxony

Victoria

Queen of the United Kingdom (since 1837), Empress of India (since 1876)

(Kensington Palace, London, 24 May 1819 – Osborne House, Isle of Wight, 22 January 1901)
Victoria (Alexandrina Victoria) was the daughter of a German mother Victoria Princess of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld and Prince Edward, Duke of Kent and Strathearn, son of King George III. King George and Victoria’s father died in 1820 and the child was brought up under the influence of her mother. As the three elder brothers of her father died without leaving legitimate children, she inherited the British throne. Her reign, the Victorian era, lasted for more than 63 years. It was an époque of great industrial, cultural and scientific input with effects on political and military changes.

Princess of the United Kingdom
Heiress apparent of the United Kingdom (since 1830)

Edward

Edward VII King of the United Kingdom, King of the British Dominions
Emperor of India (since 1901)

2

(Buckingham Palace, London, 9 November 1841 – Buckingham Palace, 6 May 1910)
During her lifetime, his mother, Queen Victoria, prevented him from taking active parts in politics. Before Edward’s accession to the throne, he served as heir apparent and held the title of Prince of Wales for longer than any of his predecessors. He also had the titles of Prince of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha and Duke of Saxony, but renounced to the succession rights to the German Duchy in 1863. His tour to India and the unknown way he treated people the same, regardless of their social status or colour, was at least supporting the idea of giving the title of Empress of India to his mother.

Prince of the United Kingdom
Prince of Wales, Earl of Chester (since 1841)
Duke of Cornwall, Duke of Rothesay
Hereditary Prince of the United Kingdom
Prince of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha, Duke of Saxony
Earl of Dublin (since 1850)

Victoria

The Empress Frederick (since 1888)

1

(Buckingham Palace, London, 21 November 1840 – Friedrichshof Castle, Kronberg, Taunus, Germany, 5 August 1901)
Victoria (Victoria Adelaide Mary Louisa) was created Princess Royal in 1841 because she was the first child. Her education was closely supervised by her parents: she learned German and French and was highly educated in science, literature, Latin, history, politics, and philosophy. To her family she was known simply as “Vicky.” At the age of seventeen she married Prince Friedrich who became Crown Prince of Prussia on the death of his childless uncle King Friedrich Wilhelm IV of Prussia. After the death of his father, King Friedrich III died with throat cancer after reigning 99 days. From then on Victoria was known simply as Her Imperial Majesty The Empress Frederick.

Princess of the United Kingdom
Princess of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha, Duchess of Saxony
The Princess Royal (since 1841) of the United Kingdom
Crown Princess of Prussia (since 1861)
Queen of Prussia and German Empress (since 1888)

Alice

Grand Duchess of Hesse and by Rhine (since 1877)

3

(Buckingham Palace, London, 25 April 1843 – Darmstadt, Hesse, 14 December 1878)
Alice (Alice Maud Mary) Princess of Great Britain and Ireland was very compassionate. She took care of her dying grandmother and father and was a comfort to her mourning mother, Queen Victoria who was in great distress by the early death of her husband, Albert. When Alice married Prince Louis of Hesse, she was given away by her father’s brother, Ernst II., Duke of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha. She had seven children, one of them, Alexandra Feodorovna, became the Tsarina of Russia. Alice is the the last Viceroy of India, maternal great-grandmother of Prince Philip, Duke of Edinburgh and Consort of Queen Elisabeth II.

Princess of the United Kingdom
Princess of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha, Duchess of Saxony

Alfred

Duke of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha, Duke of Saxony (since 1893)

4

(Windsor Castle, Berkshire, England, 6 August 1844 – Rosenau Castle near Coburg, 30 July 1900)
Alfred (Alfred Ernest Albert) spent much of his life sailing the seas as an officer of the Royal Navy, achieving the title of “Admiral of the Fleet” – until he succeeded his paternal uncle Ernst II as the reigning Duke of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha in the German Empire. He was an amateur collector of Venetian and other historical glass pieces that can be seen at the art collections of the Veste Coburg. (KG, KT, KP, GCB, GCSI, GCMG, GCIE, GCVO, PC)

Prince of the United Kingdom, Earl of Ulster, Earl of Kent
Duke of Edinburgh (since 1866)

Helena

Princess Christian (since 1917)

5

(Buckingham Palace, London, 25 May 1846 – Schomberg House, London, 9 June 1923)
Helena (Helena Augusta Victoria) was allowed to marry Prince Christian of Schleswig-Holstein, only because the couple agreed to live in Buckingham Palace near her mother, Queen Victoria. Her husband was fifteen years older than Helena and from a non-wealthy family compared to the British monarchy. Helena served as her mother’s private secretary and was very engaged in representing the royals in public affairs. She was one of the founding members of the Red Cross in Britain. When King George V dropped all the German styles and titles in 1917, she became Princess Christian.

Princess of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha, Duchess of Saxony
Princess of the United Kingdom

Princess Christian of Schleswig-Holstein (since 1866)

Louise

Duchess of Argyll (since 1900)

6

(Buckingham Palace, London, 18 March 1848 – Kensington Palace, London, 3 December 1939)
Louise (Louise Caroline Alberta) was named after her grandmother in her honour. She was said to be the most beautiful and the most talented of the Queen’s daughters. She fell in love with John, Marquess of Lorne and heir to the Duke of Argyll. Until her marriage in 1871, she was a secretary to Queen Victoria, who did not want to let her go. In opposition to her mother, she supported liberal ideals and the feminist movement. In 1878 her husband was appointed Governor General of Canada and she became Vice Regal Consort. The couple remained childless.

Princess of the United Kingdom
Princess of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha, Duchess of Saxony
Marchioness of Lorne (1871 – 1900)

Arthur

1st Duke of Connaught and Strathearn, Earl of Sussex (since 1874)

7

(Buckingham Palace, London, 1 May 1850 – Bagshot Park, Surrey, England, 16 January 1942)
Prince Arthur (Arthur William Patrick Albert) was the third son of Queen Victoria and Prince Albert of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha. He was granted the title of the 1st Duke of Connaught and Strathearn (named after a province of Ireland) by the Queen of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland. Arthur was educated by private tutors before entering the Royal Military Academy, Woolwich at the age of 16. He served in the British Army for some 40 years where he performed military as well as royal duties in different countries. His nephew, King George V, appointed him Governor General of Canada in 1911, where he served as Viceroy until 1916, the tenth since the Canadian Confederation. (KG, KT, KP, GCMG, GCSI, GCIE, GCVO, GCB, GBE, PC)

Prince of the United Kingdom
Prince of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha, Duke of Saxony
The Prince Arthur (1850 – 1874)

Leopold

Duke of Albany, Earl of Clarence, Baron Arklow (since 1881)

8

(Buckingham Palace, London, 7 April 1853 – Cannes, France, 28 March 1884)
The Prince Leopold (Leopold George Duncan Albert) was named after his grand-uncle, King Léopold I of the Belgians. He suffered from hemophilia, which he inherited from his mother, and was thus incapable of pursuing a military career and became a patron of the arts and literature. He died at the age of 30 from his disease, before the birth of his son, Prince Charles Edward, Duke of Albany, who succeeded as reigning Duke of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha in 1900. Charle Edward was deprived of his British peerage in 1917 by King George V for bearing arms against the United Kingdom in World War I. Through Charles Edward, the maternal grandfather, Léopold is the great-grandfather of Carl XVI Gustaf, the current King of Sweden. (KG, KT, GCStJ, GCMG, GCSI)

Prince of United Kingdom
Prince of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha, Duke of Saxony
The Prince Leopold (1853 – 1881)

Beatrice

Princess Henry (1917 – 1944)

9

(Buckingham Palace, London, 14 April 1857 – Brantridge Park, Sussex, 26 October 1944)
Princess Beatrice (Beatrice Mary Victoria Fedora) succeeded her sisters Alice, Helena, and Louise in being a close companion and secretary to her mother. She was the youngest and the last of Queen Victoria’s children to die, 66 years after her sister Alice. Queen Victoria agreed to her marriage with Henry, Prince of Battenberg, but only on condition that Beatrice and Henry would make their home with her and that Beatrice would continue her duties. To compensate Henry for giving up his German commitments in order to stay with his wife, the Queen made him Governor of the Isle of Wight in 1889. He died of Malaria seven years later. After his death, Queen Victoria made Beatrice governor (1896 – 1944). The couple had four children. King Juan Carlos of Spain is their great-grandson. After the death of her mother, Beatrice devoted the next 30 years to editing Queen Victoria’s journals as her designated literary executor and continued to make public appearances.

Princess of the United Kingdom
Princess of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha, Duchess of Saxony
The Princess Beatrice (1857 – 1885)
Princess Henry of Battenberg (1885 – 1917)

Edward VII

King of the United Kingdom and the British Dominions

King Edward VII

Edward

Edward VII King of the United Kingdom, King of the British Dominions
Emperor of India (since 1901)

(Buckingham Palace, London, 9 November 1841 – Buckingham Palace, 6 May 1910)
During her lifetime, his mother, Queen Victoria, prevented him from taking active parts in politics. Before Edward’s accession to the throne, he served as heir apparent and held the title of Prince of Wales for longer than any of his predecessors. He also had the titles of Prince of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha and Duke of Saxony, but renounced to the succession rights to the German Duchy in 1863. His tour to India and the unknown way he treated people the same, regardless of their social status or colour, was at least supporting the idea of giving the title of Empress of India to his mother.

Prince of the United Kingdom
Prince of Wales, Earl of Chester (since 1841)
Duke of Cornwall, Duke of Rothesay
Hereditary Prince of the United Kingdom
Prince of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha, Duke of Saxony
Earl of Dublin (since 1850)

Alexandra

The Queen Dowager (1910 – 1925)

(Copenhagen, 1 December 1844 – in Sandringham House, Norfolk, 20 November 1925)
At the age of sixteen, Alexandra (Alexandra Caroline Marie Charlotte Louise Julia) was chosen to be the future wife of Albert Edward, Prince of Wales, heir apparent of Queen Victoria. The couple married in 1863, the year when Alexandra’s father, Prince Christian of Schleswig-Holstein-Sonderburg-Glücksburg, succeeded to the Danish crown. She was a devoted mother and was involved in charities and social activities.

Princess of Schleswig-Holstein-Sonderburg-Glücksburg
Princess of Denmark (since 1852)
Princess of Wales (1863 – 1901)
The Queen of the United Kingdom / The Queen-Empress (1901 – 1910)

George

George V King of the United Kingdom, Emperor of India (since 1910)

2

(Marlborough House, London, 3 June 1865 – Sandringham House, Norfolk, 20 January 1936)
Travelling the world like his uncle Alfred, the Prince of Edinburgh and Duke of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha, it was not forecasted that George (George Frederick Ernest Albert) as the second eldest son of the Prince of Wales was going to become king one day. But on his father’s death he succeeded in 1910. During his reign he had to face so many changes in the political scenery such as the decline of monarchy on the European continent and Russia together with the generation of socialism, communism, fascism and Irish nationalism or the efforts to independence of India and not to forget the First World War, which made enemies out of closely related persons, like the German emperor Wilhelm II, first cousin to him as well as to Tsar Nicholas II of Russia. As a result of the bloody war, he ordered by Letters Patent to change the name of his house from Saxe-Coburg and Gotha into Windsor. (KG, KT, KP, GCSI, GCMG, GCIE, GCVO, ISO, PC, FRS)

Prince of the United Kingdom
Prince of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha, Duke of Saxony
The Duke of York (since 1892)
The Duke of Cornwall and York, Earl of Chester, The Prince of Wales,
The Duke of Rothesay (since 1901)

Albert Victor

Duke of Clarence and Avondale (since 1890)

1

(Frogmore House, Berkshire, 8 January 1864 – Sandringham House, Norfolk, 14 January 1891)
Albert Victor, Duke of Clarence and Avondale (Albert Victor Christian Edward), was the oldest son of Albert Edward, Prince of Wales (later King Edward VII), and heir apparent to the British throne. He was raised and educated with his younger brother George and was in the Navy until 1883. Shortly after his engagement (made at request of his grandmother Queen Victoria) to Princess Mary of Teck in 1891, he died of influenza. Two years later, the bride – Queen Victoria’s favoured candidate – married his younger brother George, who became King George V.

Prince of the United Kingdom
Prince of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha, Duke of Saxony
Prince of Wales

Louise

The Princess Royal (since 1905)

3

(Marlborough House, London, 20 February 1867 – London, 4 January 1931)
Louise (Louise Victoria Alexandra Dagmar) married her third cousin in descent from George III, the 6th Earl Fife, who was eighteen years her senior. Two days after the wedding, Queen Victoria made him Duke of Fife and Marquess of Macduff in the Peerage of the United Kingdom. This dukedom would normally be succeeded by male heirs, but as the first son was stillborn and the couple had only daughters, the Queen decided in 1900 that the peerages could be passed to the female heirs and then to their sons. (LJStJ, GCStJ)

Princess of the United Kingdom
Princess Louise of Wales (1867 – 1889)
Princess of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha, Duchess of Saxony
Countess Fife, Duchess of Fife (1889 – 1901)
The Princess Louise, Duchess of Fife (1901 – 1905)

Victoria

The Princess Victoria (since 1901)

4

(Marlborough House, London, 6 July 1868 – Coppins House, Iver, Buckinghamshire, 3 December 1935)
Victoria (Victoria Alexandra Olga Mary) – her family called her Toria – abstained from marrying, possibly at the request of her mother. The most acceptable match would have been King Carlos I of Portugal, but she stayed with her parents and cared for her mother. Victoria was described as being particularly connected to her brother George, the future King George V.

Princess of the United Kingdom
Princess of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha, Duke of Saxony
Princess Victoria of Wales

Maud

The Queen of Norway (since 1905)

5

(Marlborough House, London, 26 November 1869 – 20 November 1938)
In 1896, Maud (Maud Charlotte Mary Victoria) married her first cousin, Prince Carl of Denmark. He was a member of the House of Schleswig-Holstein-Sonderburg-Glücksburg and was to become the first King of Norway, called King Haakon VII. He was elected after dissolution of the union of more than 90 years with Sweden. Maud’s royal British origin may have played a decisive role in favour of her husband’s election. The coronation of King Haakon VII and Queen Maud in 1906 was the last in Scandinavia.

Princess of the United Kingdom
Princess of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha, Duke of Saxony
Princess Maud of Wales
Princess Carl of Denmark (since 1896)

Alexander John

Prince of Wales

6

(6 April 1871 – 7 April 1871)
Alexander was born prematurely and was christened privately the evening after his birth. He lived for only one day.

Prince of the United Kingdom
Prince of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha, Duke of Saxony

George V King of the United Kingdom
and the British Dominions

George V King of the United Kingdom, Emperor of India (since 1910)

George

George V King of the United Kingdom, Emperor of India (since 1910)

(Marlborough House, London, 3 June 1865 – Sandringham House, Norfolk, 20 January 1936)
Travelling the world like his uncle Alfred, the Prince of Edinburgh and Duke of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha, it was not forecasted that George (George Frederick Ernest Albert) as the second eldest son of the Prince of Wales was going to become king one day. But on his father’s death he succeeded in 1910. During his reign he had to face so many changes in the political scenery such as the decline of monarchy on the European continent and Russia together with the generation of socialism, communism, fascism and Irish nationalism or the efforts to independence of India and not to forget the First World War, which made enemies out of closely related persons, like the German emperor Wilhelm II, first cousin to him as well as to Tsar Nicholas II of Russia. As a result of the bloody war, he ordered by Letters Patent to change the name of his house from Saxe-Coburg and Gotha into Windsor. (KG, KT, KP, GCSI, GCMG, GCIE, GCVO, ISO, PC, FRS)

Prince of the United Kingdom
Prince of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha, Duke of Saxony
The Duke of York (since 1892)
The Duke of Cornwall and York, Earl of Chester, The Prince of Wales, 
The Duke of Rothesay (since 1901)

Mary

Queen Mary (since 1936)

(Kensington Palace, London, 26 May 1867 – Marlborough House, London, 24 March 1953)
Mary (Victoria Maria Augusta Louise Olga Pauline Claudine Agnes) was chosen as a favourite bride for any grandson of Queen Victoria that was to become king. She was engaged to Albert Victor, Duke of Clarence and Avondale, who died a few weeks after the engagement. She married George, his younger brother, the future King George V. She supported her husband through difficult years of war and societal changes. After his death, she supported her son, who became King Edward VIII, but she disapproved of his decision to abdicate so that he could marry the twice-divorced American Wallis Simpson,  she supported her next son, Albert, Duke of York.  He ascended the throne on Edward’s abdication, taking the name George VI. When he died in 1952, her oldest granddaughter Elizabeth ascended the throne. But Mary died shortly before her granddaughter’s coronation as Queen Elizabeth II.

Princess of Teck
Princess of the United Kingdom (since 1893)
The Duchess of York (since 1893)
The Duchess of Cornwall and York (since 1901)
Princess of Wales (1901 – 1910)
Queen of the United Kingdom and the British Dominions, The Queen-Empress (since 1910)

Edward

Duke of Windsor (since 1936)

1

(White Lodge, London, 23 June 1894 – Paris, 28 May 1972)
In December 1936, Edward VIII (Edward Albert Christian George Andrew Patrick David) abdicated after a reign of less than one year. He was the oldest son of King George V and Queen Mary and was created Prince of Wales on his sixteenth birthday. His abdication was necessary for political and religious reasons. He had decided to marry Wallis Simpson, an American woman who was once divorced and soon to be divorced of her second husband. Neither the politicians nor the Church of England, of which Edward was the head, would have tolerated this union. He had to spend the rest of his life more or less in exile and could only enter the United Kingdom when invited by the crown.

Prince of the United Kingdom
Prince of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha, Duke of Saxony
Duke of Cornwall, Duke of Rothesay (since 1910)
Prince of Wales, Earl of Chester
Edward VIII King of the United Kingdom and the British Dominions, Emperor of India

Albert

George VI King of the United Kingdom and the Dominions of the British Commonwealth (1936 – 1952)
Head of the Commonwealth (since 1948)

2

(York Cottage, Sandringham House, Norfolk, 14 December 1895 – Sandringham House, Norfolk, 6 February 1952)
Prince Consort Albert (Albert Frederick Arthur George), was named after his great-grandfather because he was born on the anniversary of his death. When he inherited the throne, Albert chose the name George VI to recall his father’s rule and to forget the irritation caused by his brother Edward. The new king faced difficult political changes: the separation of Ireland, the decline of the British Empire and its transition into the Commonwealth of Nations, and World War II with its implications on the United Kingdom. While his health was deteriorating, Princess Elizabeth, his oldest daughter and the heiress apparent, assumed royal duties and upon his death became Queen.

Prince of the United Kingdom
Prince Albert of York
Prince of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha, Duke of Saxony
Prince Albert of Cornwall and York (since 1898)
The Prince Albert of Wales (since 1901)
The Duke of York, Earl of Inverness and Baron Killarney (1920 – 1936)
The King-Emperor (1936 – 1947)
Emperor of India (1936 – 1948)

Mary

The Princess Royal (since 1932)

3

(York Cottage, Sandringham, 25 April 1897 – Harewood House, Yorkshire, 28 March 1965)
Princess Mary (Victoria Alexandra Alice Mary) is the great aunt of Prince Charles, the current heir apparent to the British throne. During her lifetime six different monarchs reigned. When she was nearly four years old, her great-grandmother, Queen Victoria, died and her grandfather Edward VII took over, followed by her father George V and her two brothers Edward VIII – with whom she was very close – and George VI. In 1952, she attended the coronation of her niece, Queen Elizabeth. In 1922, Princess Mary was married to Henry Charles George, Viscount Lascelles (1882 – 1947), with whom she had two sons. Her husband was the oldest son of Henry Lascelles, 5th Earl of Harewood, and Lady Florence Bridgeman, daughter of Orlando Bridgeman, 3rd Earl of Bradford of Weston Park. Princess Mary’s public duties included promoting the Girl Guide movement, the Women’s Services, nursing, and the British Red Cross.

Princess of the United Kingdom
Princess Mary of York, Princess Mary of Cornwall and York
Princess of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha, Duchess of Saxony
Princess Mary of Wales (1901 – 1910)
The Princess Mary (1910 – 1922)
The Princess Mary, Viscountess Lascelles (1922 – 1929)
Countess of Harewood (1929 – 1932)

Henry

Duke of Gloucester, Earl of Ulster, Baron Culloden (since 1928)

4

(York Cottage, Sandringham, 31 March 1900 – Barnwell Manor, Northamptonshire, 10 June 1974)
Henry (Henry William Frederick Albert) went to school in Eton, where he lived in the same house as Crown Prince Léopold of Belgium, King Léopold III. Unlike his older brothers, he joined the Army rather than the Royal Navy. He married Lady Alice Christabel Montagu Douglas Scott, a daughter of John Montagu Douglas Scott, 7th Duke of Buccleuch. The couple had two sons. In 1936, Henry was appointed potential regent for the heir apparent of Princess Elizabeth, when her father ascended the throne. He was appointed the 11th Governor General of Australia in 1945 and remained in office until 1947. (KG, KT, KP, GCB, GCMG, GCVO)

Prince of the United Kingdom
Prince of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha, Duke of Saxony (till 1917)
Prince Henry of Wales (1901 – 1910)
The Prince Henry (1910 – 1928)
Duke of Gloucester (since 1928)
Governor General of Australia (1945 – 1947)

George

Duke of Kent, Earl of Saint Andrews, Baron Downpatrick (since 1934)

5

(York Cottage, Sandringham Estate, 20 December 1902 – Morven, Scotland 25 August 1942)
George (George Edward Alexander Edmund) attended Preparatory School at Broadstairs in Kent like his brother Prince Henry, the later Duke of Gloucester, but continued his education at a naval college. He remained in the Royal Navy until 1929. He became the first member of the royals in Britain to work as a civil servant in both the Foreign and Home Offices. In 1934, he married his second cousin, Princess Marina of Greece and Denmark, daughter of Prince Nicholas of Greece and Denmark. They had three children. In 1940, at the outbreak of World War II, he returned to active military service in the Royal Air Force. In 1942 he died in a military air-crash. (KG, KT, GCMG, GCVO)

Prince of the United Kingdom
Prince of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha, Duke of Saxony (till 1917)

John

Prince of the United Kingdom

6

(York Cottage, Sandringham, 12 July 1905 – Wood Cottage, Sandringham, 18 January 1919)
John (John Charles Francis) was the youngest child and fifth son of King George V and his wife, Mary of Teck. He suffered from epilepsy and died two months after the end of the World War I, at the age of thirteen.

Prince of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha, Duke of Saxony

Edward VIII

King of the United Kingdom and the British Dominions

King Edward VIII

Edward

Duke of Windsor (since 1936)

1

(White Lodge, London, 23 June 1894 – Paris, 28 May 1972)
In December 1936, Edward VIII (Edward Albert Christian George Andrew Patrick David) abdicated after a reign of less than one year. He was the oldest son of King George V and Queen Mary and was created Prince of Wales on his sixteenth birthday. His abdication was necessary for political and religious reasons. He had decided to marry Wallis Simpson, an American woman who was once divorced and soon to be divorced of her second husband. Neither the politicians nor the Church of England, of which Edward was the head, would have tolerated this union. He had to spend the rest of his life more or less in exile and could only enter the United Kingdom when invited by the crown.

Prince of the United Kingdom
Prince of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha, Duke of Saxony
Duke of Cornwall, Duke of Rothesay (since 1910)
Prince of Wales, Earl of Chester 
Edward VIII King of the United Kingdom and the British Dominions, Emperor of India

Wallis

Duchess of Windsor

(Blue Ridge Summit, USA, 19 June 1896 – Paris, 24 April 1986)
Wallis, Duchess of Windsor (previously, Wallis Spencer, born Bessie Wallis Warfield) was an American socialite. When she met Prince Edward, then heir apparent, she was already divorced and in the process of divorcing her second husband. Edward’s wish to marry a woman with two living ex-husbands threatened to cause a constitutional crisis in Britain. King Edward VIII decided to abdicate in order to marry her. Edward was made Duke of Windsor by his successor King George VI. The couple lived a life of leisure, belonging to the Jet Set or Café Society of the “beautiful people” at the most popular places in Europe and the United States.

Wallis Simpson

George VI

King of the United Kingdom and the British Dominions

Albert

George VI King of the United Kingdom and the Dominions of the British Commonwealth (1936 – 1952)
Head of the Commonwealth (since 1948)

2

(York Cottage, Sandringham House, Norfolk, 14 December 1895 – Sandringham House, Norfolk, 6 February 1952)
Prince Consort Albert (Albert Frederick Arthur George), was named after his great-grandfather because he was born on the anniversary of his death. When he inherited the throne, Albert chose the name George VI to recall his father’s rule and to forget the irritation caused by his brother Edward. The new king faced difficult political changes: the separation of Ireland, the decline of the British Empire and its transition into the Commonwealth of Nations, and World War II with its implications on the United Kingdom. While his health was deteriorating, Princess Elizabeth, his oldest daughter and the heiress apparent, assumed royal duties and upon his death became Queen.

Prince of the United Kingdom
Prince Albert of York
Prince of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha, Duke of Saxony 
Prince Albert of Cornwall and York (since 1898)
The Prince Albert of Wales (since 1901)
The Duke of York, Earl of Inverness and Baron Killarney (1920 – 1936)
The King-Emperor (1936 – 1947)
Emperor of India (1936 – 1948)

Elizabeth

The Queen Mother (1952 – 2002)

(London or Hitchin, 4 August 1900 – Royal Lodge, Windsor, Berkshire, 30 March 2002)
Elizabeth (Angela Marguerite Bowes-Lyon) was the ninth of ten children of Claude Bowes-Lyon, Lord Glamis (later the 14th Earl of Strathmore and Kinghorne in the Peerage of Scotland), and his wife, Cecilia Cavendish-Bentinck. Elizabeth’s mother was a descendant of three British Prime Ministers: William Cavendish-Bentinck, 3rd Duke of Portland and Governor General of India, and Richard Wellesley, 1st Marquess Wellesley, who was the older brother of another Prime Minister, Arthur Wellesley, 1st Duke of Wellington. It took Albert three proposals before Elizabeth agreed to marry him. His freedom in choosing Elizabeth, the daughter of a peer, and not a member of a royal family, was considered to be a step toward liberalisation. Previously, princes were expected to marry princesses from other royal families. Elizaebeth became a very popular member of the royal family and died at the age of 101, a few months after her second daughter, Margaret.

Elizabeth Bowes-Lion
Lady Elizabeth Bowes-Lion (1904 – 1923)
The Duchess of York (1923 – 1936)
The Queen (1936 – 1952), The Queen-Empress (1936 – 1947)

Elizabeth

Elizabeth II Queen of the United Kingdom and the other Commonwealth Realms (since 1952)

1

(Mayfair, London, 21 April 1926)
Elizabeth (Elizabeth Alexandra Mary) became heir apparent to the British throne when her father King Georg V succeeded to the throne in 1936 on the abdication of his brother Edward. Elizabeth was brought up and educated with the expectation of being the Head of State of the United Kingdom as well as 15 other sovereign states – the Commonwealth realms. In 1947, she married Prince Philip, Duke of Edinburgh. When her father died in 1952, she became Queen at the age of 25. During her sixty-one year reign, there have been quite a few changes in politics, economics, lifestyle, and society. Hopefully Queen Elisabeth II will surpass the 63-year reign that Queen Victoria enjoyed.

Princess of the United Kingdom
Heiress apparent (since 1936)

 

Margaret

Countess of Snowdon (since 1961)

2

(Glamis Castle, Scotland, 21 August 1930 – London, 9 February 2002)
Margaret (Margaret Rose) was the younger sister of Queen Elizabeth II. The two sisters spent much of their childhood together, and the relatively small family was close. When she grew up, she fell in love with Peter Townsend, a married Group Captain. After his divorce he proposed to the Princess, but the Church of England refused to approve the marriage because of his divorce. In 1960, Margaret accepted the proposal of Antony Armstrong-Jones, a well-known photographer. The couple had two children, but divorced in 1978. During the last two decades, Margaret has suffered from various health disabilities, particularly pulmonary illnesses, as she was a heavy smoker like her father. (CI GCVO GCStJ)

Princess of the United Kingdom
Princess Margaret of York
The Princess Margaret (since 1936)

 

Elizabeth II

Queen of the United Kingdom and the other Commonwealth Realms

Elizabeth

Elizabeth II Queen of the United Kingdom and the other Commonwealth Realms (since 1952)

(Mayfair, London, 21 April 1926)
Elizabeth (Elizabeth Alexandra Mary) became heir apparent to the British throne when her father King Georg V succeeded to the throne in 1936 on the abdication of his brother Edward. Elizabeth was brought up and educated with the expectation of being the Head of State of the United Kingdom as well as 15 other sovereign states – the Commonwealth realms. In 1947, she married Prince Philip, Duke of Edinburgh. When her father died in 1952, she became Queen at the age of 25. During her sixty-one year reign, there have been quite a few changes in politics, economics, lifestyle, and society. Hopefully Queen Elisabeth II will surpass the 63-year reign that Queen Victoria enjoyed.

Princess of the United Kingdom
Heiress apparent (since 1936)

Philip

The Prince Philip, Duke of Edinburgh (since 1957)

(Mon Repos, Corfu, Greece, 10 June 1921)
Prince Philip was born the only son of Prince Andrew of Greece. Philip was a great-grandson of King Christian IX of Denmark. His family was exiled from Greece when he was a baby. He had a well-rounded education in France, England, Germany, and Scotland. He joined the British Royal Navy in 1939 at the age of 18, and stayed active until 1951. Princess Elizabeth, whom he first met in 1934 at the request of her parents, was his third cousin. After the war, Philip was allowed by George VI to marry Elizabeth. He renounced his Greek and Danish royal titles, converted from Greek Orthodox to the Anglican Church, and became a naturalised British subject. From his maternal grandparents he took the name of Mountbatten. Shortly before the marriage in 1947, his father-in-law granted him the title Duke of Edinburgh. His wife, the Queen, made him a Prince of the United Kingdom in 1957. Philip is the longest-serving and oldest spouse of a reigning British monarch and male member of the British royal family. (KG, KT, OM, ONZ, GBE, AC, QSO, GCL, CC, CMM, PC, PC, ADC (P))

Prince of the United Kingdom
Prince of Greece and Denmark
Philip Mountbatten
Duke of Edinburgh (since 1947)
Earl of Merioneth and Baron Greenwich (since 1947)
Prince of the United Kingdom (since 1957)

Charles

Prince of Wales (since 1958 resp. 1969)

1

(Buckingham Palace, London, 14 November 1948)
Charles (Charles Philip Arthur George) is the longest-serving heir apparent in British history, as he has been holding this position since 1952, when his mother ascended the throne. He is also the oldest heir to the throne since 1714. After he acquired a bachelor’s degree at Trinity College, Cambridge, he served in the Royal Navy until 1976. In 1981 he married Lady Diana Spencer. In 1996, the couple divorced. In 2005, eight years after the death of Diana in a car crash, he married his long-term intimate friend, Camilla Parker Bowles, in a civil ceremony. His royal duties include representing the Queen by welcoming dignitaries to the United Kingdom and attending State dinners. The Prince often represents the Head of State and the United Kingdom overseas at state and ceremonial occasions such as state weddings and funerals. His interests include organic farming and environmental problems, architecture, conservation of historic buildings, and philosophical aspects of life. He used to be a passionate polo player and is known for his love of horses and riding. (KG, KT, GCB, OM, AK, QSO, PC, ADC)

Prince of the United Kingdom
Earl of Chester, Duke of Cornwall, Duke of Rothesay, Earl of Carrick
Baron of Renfrew, Lord of the Isles
Prince and Great Steward of Scotland

Anne

Princess Royal

2

(Clarence House, London, 15 August 1950)
Anne (Anne Elizabeth Alice Louise) was raised by a governess and attended several schools in Great Britain and abroad. Since 1969 she has engaged in public duties, often accompanied by her parents. She has become an expert in horseback riding and was the first member of the British Royal Family to represent her country in the Olympic Games. In 1973, Princess Anne married Mark Phillips, a lieutenant in the 1st Queen’s Dragoon Guards, with whom she has two children. The couple divorced in 1992. At the end of 1992 she married Vice-Admiral Sir Timothy Laurence. The Princess Royal takes part in more than 600 official engagements each year, both in the United Kingdom and overseas, and participates in a broad range of welfare and social organisations. (KG KT GCVO)

Princess of the United Kingdom
Princess Anne of Edinburgh
The Princess Anne (since 1952)
The Princess Anne, Mrs. Mark Phillips (since 1973)
The Princess Royal (since 1987)

Andrew

Duke of York (since 1986)

3

(Buckingham Palace, London, 19 February 1960)
Andrew (Andrew Albert Christian Edward), the second son and third child of Queen Elizabeth II and Prince Philip, Duke of Edinburgh, chose to start a military career by entering the Britannia Royal Naval College at Dartmouth. During the Falkland War with Argentina in 1982, he served as a helicopter co-pilot on board the Invincible of the Royal Navy task force. He was trained to fly helicopters, and served as a flight commander at the British Ministry of Defense and as an officer of the Diplomatic Directorate of the Naval Staff. He ended his naval career on his 50th birthday as an Honorary Rear Admiral. Andrew now promotes British businesses as a Special Representative for International Trade and Investment . In 1986 her married Sarah Ferguson, but they divorced ten years later after having two children. (KG GCVO ADC (P))

Prince of the United Kingdom
Earl of Inverness, and Baron Killyleagh
The Prince Andrew

Edward

The Earl of Wessex (since 1999)

4

(Buckingham Palace, London, 10 March 1964)
Edward (Edward Antony Richard Louis) studied history at Cambridge University and entered the Royal Marines, but a few months later left to pursue a career in entertainment. In 1993 he formed Ardent Productions. In 1996 the company produced a documentary on his great-uncle, the Duke of Windsor, the former King Edward VIII. The enterprise was liquidated in 2009. In 1994 he married Sophie Rhys-Jones, then a public relations executive with her own business. They have two children. As his father the Duke of Edinburgh has gotten older, Edward has taken on some of his royal duties. (KG GCVO ADC (P))

Prince of the United Kingdom
The Prince Edward

Charles

Prince of Wales

Charles

Prince of Wales (since 1958 resp. 1969)

1

(Buckingham Palace, London, 14 November 1948)
Charles (Charles Philip Arthur George) is the longest-serving heir apparent in British history, as he has been holding this position since 1952, when his mother ascended the throne. He is also the oldest heir to the throne since 1714. After he acquired a bachelor’s degree at Trinity College, Cambridge, he served in the Royal Navy until 1976. In 1981 he married Lady Diana Spencer. In 1996, the couple divorced. In 2005, eight years after the death of Diana in a car crash, he married his long-term intimate friend, Camilla Parker Bowles, Camilla Parker Bowles in a civil ceremony. His royal duties include representing the Queen by welcoming dignitaries to the United Kingdom and attending State dinners. The Prince often represents the Head of State and the United Kingdom overseas at state and ceremonial occasions such as state weddings and funerals. His interests include organic farming and environmental problems, architecture, conservation of historic buildings, and philosophical aspects of life. He used to be a passionate polo player and is known for his love of horses and riding. (KG, KT, GCB, OM, AK, QSO, PC, ADC)

Prince of the United Kingdom 
Earl of Chester, Duke of Cornwall, Duke of Rothesay, Earl of Carrick
Baron of Renfrew, Lord of the Isles
Prince and Great Steward of Scotland

Diana

Princess of Wales

1

(Park House, Sandringham, Norfolk, England, 1 July 1961 – Pitié-Salpêtrière Hospital, Paris, France, 31 August 1997)
Diana (Diana Frances Spencer) was born into an aristocratic English family with royal ancestry. She was the fourth child of John Spencer, Viscount Althorp, and his first wife, the Honorable Frances Roche, daughter of the 4th Baron Fermoy. With the engagement and marriage to the Prince of Wales, Diana found herself exposed to a permanent flurry of flashbulbs and public interest. She used this worldwide media attention to benefit her fundraising work for charities. She was very fond of children and had two sons, but her marriage was not a happy one and ended in divorce in 1996. During her final year, Diana supported the International Campaign to Ban Land Mines, a campaign that won the Nobel Peace Prize in 1997. Diana died in a car crash in Paris a few months before the Nobel Peace Prize ceremony.

The Honourable Diana Spencer
Lady Diana Spencer (since 1975)
Princess of Wales, Duchess of Cornwall, Duchess of Rothesay, Countess of Chester and Baroness of Renfrew (since 1981)

Issue:

William Duke of Cambridge, Earl of Strathearn and Baron Carrickfergus (since 2012)
Henry Prince of Wales

Camilla

The Duchess of Cornwall (since 2005)
The Duchess of Rothesay (since 2005)

2

(King’s College Hospital, London, 17 July 1947)
Camilla (Camilla Rosemary Shand) is the oldest child of Major Bruce Shand and his wife, the Honorable Rosalind Cubitt, the daughter of the 3rd Baron Ashcombe. She was raised in East Sussex, a county in southeast England, and was educated in England, Switzerland, and France. In 1973, she married British Army officer Andrew Parker Bowles, with whom she has two children and five grandchildren. The couple divorced in 1995, shortly after Andrew retired from the army. In 2005 she married Charles Prince of Wales, whom she has known and had a controversial relationship with for many years. She is styled “Duchess of Cornwall” and “Duchess of Rothesay” through her husband’s designations. (GCVO CSM)

Miss Camilla Rosemary Shand
Mrs. Andrew Parker Bowles (since 1973)
Mrs. Camilla Parker Bowles (since 1995)

William

Duke of Cambridge (since 2012)
Earl of Strathearn and Baron Carrickfergus (since 2012)

1

(St. Mary’s Hospital, Paddington, London, 21 June 1982)
William (William Arthur Philip Louis) was educated at Eton College, contrary to the family tradition of sending royal children to Gordonstoun in Scotland (where Prince Philip, Prince Charles, two uncles, and two cousins had gone). The idea is presumed to have originated with the Spencer family, as Diana’s father and brother had attended Eton. After obtaining his degree at the University of Saint Andrews, William spent some time in Chile and several African countries. He trained as a pilot, earning his wings at the Royal Air Force College Cranwell, and went on to become a full-time pilot with the Search and Rescue Force where he served more than seven and a half years. In 2011 he married Catherine Middleton. One year later their son Prince George of Cambridge was born. (KG KT ADC (P)

Prince of the United Kingdom

Henry

Prince of Wales

2

(St. Mary’s Hospital, Paddington, London, 15. September 1984)
Henry (Henry Charles Albert David), also called Prince Harry, accompanied his parents on official visits to many countries abroad. He attended Eton College like his brother, and spent a year in Australia and Africa. He passed two A-levels and was qualified to apply for an officer commission in the British Army. In 2013, after rigorous training and a deployment to Afghanistan, the Ministry of Defense announced that Prince Harry qualified as an Apache Aircraft Commander. Like his brother William, Prince Harry engages in charity work and fulfills royal duties on behalf of his grandmother, the Queen, and his father, the Prince of Wales.

Prince of the United Kingdom

William

Duke of Cambridge

William

Duke of Cambridge (since 2012)
Earl of Strathearn and Baron Carrickfergus (since 2012)

(St. Mary’s Hospital, Paddington, London, 21 June 1982)
William (William Arthur Philip Louis) was educated at Eton College, contrary to the family tradition of sending royal children to Gordonstoun in Scotland (where Prince Philip, Prince Charles, two uncles, and two cousins had gone). The idea is presumed to have originated with the Spencer family, as Diana’s father and brother had attended Eton. After obtaining his degree at the University of Saint Andrews, William spent some time in Chile and several African countries. He trained as a pilot, earning his wings at the Royal Air Force College Cranwell, and went on to become a full-time pilot with the Search and Rescue Force where he served more than seven and a half years. In 2011 he married Catherine Middleton. One year later their son Prince George of Cambridge was born. (KG KT ADC (P)

Prince of the United Kingdom

Catherine

Duchess of Cambridge (since 2012)

(Royal Berkshire Hospital, Reading, Berkshire, 9 January 1982)
Catherine (Catherine Elizabeth) is the oldest of three children born to Michael Middleton and his wife Carole Goldsmith, two former flight attendants, now flight dispatchers for British Airways. “Kate” studied art history in Scotland at the University of Saint Andrews, where she met William in 2001. Their engagement was announced on 16 November 2010. Afterwards Kate attended many high-profile royal events before marrying William on 29 April 2011 at Westminster Abbey. Time magazine ranked Kate as one of the 100 Most Influential People in the World. On 22 July 2013 she gave birth to Prince George of Cambridge.

Catherine Middleton

George

Prince of Cambridge

1

(St Mary’s Hospital, London, 22 July 2013)
George (George Alexander Louis) is third in line to succeed his great-grandmother, Queen Elizabeth II, after his grandfather and father.

Prince of the United Kingdom

Charlotte

Princess of Cambridge

1

(St Mary’s Hospital, London, 2 May 2015)
Charlotte (Charlotte Elizabeth Diana) is fourth in line to succeed his great-grandmother, Queen Elizabeth II, after his grandfather and father.

Princess of the United Kingdom