HOUSE OF SAXE-COBURG AND GOTHA

Wappen_Sachsen_Coburg_Gotha

The House of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha (in German, Haus Sachsen Coburg und Gotha) is a German dynasty, in particular, the line of the Saxon House of Wettin that ruled the Ernestine duchies, including the duchy of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha.

Although the House of Coburg reaches back in history to the 1400s, we start our family tree in the latter half of the 18th century with Franz Friedrich Anton, the sixth Duke of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld (from 1826 on, the house was called Saxe-Coburg and Gotha). Through the first marriage of Ernst, Franz Anton’s eldest son, to Luise Princess of Saxe-Gotha-Altenburg, the house acquired considerably more territory and importance. The descendants of Franz Friedrich Anton were at the top of several European monarchies. Members of their successor families are currently heads of government in many countries: Belgium through the descendants of King Léopold I, and in the Commonwealth realm through the descendants of Prince Consort Albert. Due to anti-German sentiment in the United Kingdom during World War I, King George V of the United Kingdom and Ireland changed the name of his branch from “Saxe-Coburg and Gotha” to “Windsor” in 1917. The same happened in Belgium, where it became “van België” or “de Belgique.”

Franz Friedrich Anton

Duke of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld, Duke of Saxony (since 1800)

(Coburg, 15 July 1750 – Coburg, 9 December 1806)
Franz Friedrich Anton had to take over a practically ruined duchy. But he was a very talented man and – despite of his lack of money – started to collect engravings of the most excelling artists between the 15th and 18th century, thus founding the Coburg Collection of Graphics with its today’s 220.000 pieces of art. He is a patrilinear ancestor of Queen Elizabeth II of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, King Philippe of the Belgians and former tsar Simeon II (1943 – 1946 during the monarchy) and prime minister of Bulgaria (between 2001 and 2005).

Hereditary Prince of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld (till 1800)

Auguste Karoline Sophie

Duchess of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld, Duchess of Saxony (since 1800)

(Saalburg-Ebersdorf, 19 January 1757 – Coburg, 16 November 1831)
Auguste had ten children, born between 1778 and 1792. One was stillborn and two died during their childhood. The other seven were married to European high nobility and these marriages were arranged under strong personal care. Auguste was the maternal grandmother of Queen Victoria of the United Kingdom and Ireland and the paternal grandmother of Albert, Prince Consort.

Princess Reuss
Princess of Ebersdorf
Princess of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld, Duchess of Saxony (since 1777)

Ferdinand Georg August

Prince of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha (Koháry) (since 1826)

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(Coburg, 28 March 1785 – Vienna, 27 August 1851)
Ferdinand is the second son of Franz Friedrich Anton, Duke of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld, and Auguste Karoline Sophie. Ferdinand served as General of Cavalry in the Austrian Imperial and Royal Army during the Napoleonic Wars. It was in Austria that he met Countess Maria Antonia Koháry of Csábrág and Szitnya, daughter and heiress of Ferenc József, Count Koháry of Csábrág and Szitnya. The couple married in 1815. When Antonia’s father, who was the Imperial Chancellor of Emperor Franz I, died in 1826, the Koháry fiefdom estates reverted to the Emperor. The Emperior gave the fiefdom estates to his highly decorated General Ferdinand, to thank him for his military service. In return, Ferdinand’s family had to convert to Roman Catholicism. He became the third largest landowner in Greater Hungary at the time.

Prince of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld, Duke of Saxony

The first Duke of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha was Ernst I, who reigned from 1826 until his death in 1844. He had previously been Duke of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld (as Ernst III) from 1806 until the duchy was reorganized in 1826. Ernst’s younger brother Léopold became King of the Belgians in 1831, and his descendants continue to serve as Belgian heads of state. Léopold I’s only daughter, Princess Charlotte of Belgium, was the Consort of Maximilian I of Mexico, known as the Empress Carlota of Mexico, in the 1860s. Ernst’s nephew Ferdinand married Queen Maria II of Portugal, and his descendants continued to rule Portugal until the country became a republic in 1910.

Duke Ernst I’s second son, Prince Albert (1819–1861), married Queen Victoria in 1840, and thus is the progenitor of the United Kingdom’s current royal family, called “Windsor” since 1917. In 1826, a cadet branch of the House of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha inherited the Hungarian princely estate of Koháry, and converted to Roman Catholicism. Its family members managed to marry an Imperial Princess of Brazil, an Archduchess of Austria, a Royal Princess of “the French,” a Royal Princess of Belgium and a Royal Princess of Saxony. [A scion of this branch, also named Ferdinand, a Prince, and then Tsar of Bulgaria, Ferdinand’s descendants continued to rule in Bulgaria until 1946.] The current Head of the House of Bulgaria, the former Tsar Simeon II, was deposed and exiled during World War II, but returned to serve as Bulgaria’s Prime Minister from 2001 to 2005.

The Ducal House consisted of all male-line descendants of Franz Friedrich Anton, Duke of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld, legitimately born of an equal marriage, males and females (the latter until their marriage), their wives in equal and authorized marriages, and their widows until remarriage. According to the House law of the Duchy of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha, the full title of the Duke was:

Ernst, Duke of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha, Jülich, Cleves and Berg, also Angria and Westphalia, Landgrave in Thuringia, Margrave of Meissen, Princely Count of Henneberg, Count of the Mark and Ravensberg, Lord of Ravenstein and Tonna, et cetera.

Ferdinand Georg August

Prince of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha (Koháry), Duke of Saxony

Portrait of Ferdinand, Prince of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld, Duke of Saxony

Ferdinand Georg August

Prince of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha (Koháry) (since 1826)

(Coburg, 28 March 1785 – Vienna, 27 August 1851)
Ferdinand is the second son of Franz Friedrich Anton, Duke of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld, and Auguste Karoline Sophie. Ferdinand served as General of Cavalry in the Austrian Imperial and Royal Army during the Napoleonic Wars. It was in Austria that he met Countess Maria Antonia Koháry of Csábrág and Szitnya, daughter and heiress of Ferenc József, Count Koháry of Csábrág and Szitnya. The couple married in 1815. When Antonia’s father, who was the Imperial Chancellor of Emperor Franz I, died in 1826, the Koháry fiefdom estates reverted to the Emperor. The Emperior gave the fiefdom estates to his highly decorated General Ferdinand, to thank him for his military service. In return, Ferdinand’s family had to convert to Roman Catholicism. He became the third largest landowner in Greater Hungary at the time.

Prince of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld, Duke of Saxony

Mária Antónia

Princess of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha (Koháry), Duchess of Saxony (since 1826)

(Buda, 2 July 1797 – Vienna, 25 September 1862)
Mária Antónia was the only daughter of Ferenc József, Count Koháry, and his wife, Countess Maria Antoinetta Josefa of Waldstein-Wartenburg. Mária’s brother Anton died at the age of two in 1795, leaving her the sole heir to the family’s vast fortune, including the exclusive Palais Koháry in Vienna. In 1815 Mária married Ferdinand of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha, a marriage that would have been unequal, if the Emperor had not given her father the title of Prince Koháry. Mária’s husband was determined to tear down the Palais Koháry, and he built the Palais Coburg in its place between 1840 and 1845. Today the Palais is a luxury hotel.

Mária Antónia Koháry
Princess of Koháry of Csábrág and Szitnya (since 1815)
Princess of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld (Koháry), Duchess of Saxony (since 1815)

August Ludwig Viktor

Prince of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha (Koháry), Duke of Saxony (since 1826)

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(Vienna, Austria, 13 June 1818 – Ebenthal Castle, Austria, 26 July 1881)
August Ludwig Viktor of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld was the second son of Prince Ferdinand of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld and Princess Mária Antónia Koháry, the daughter of Ferenc József, Prince Koháry of Csábrág and Szitnya. On the death of her father in 1826, Mária inherited his estates in Slovakia and Hungary. In 1843, August married Princess Clémentine of Orléans, daughter of Louis-Philippe I, King of the French, and Maria Amalia of the Two Sicilies. August and Clémentine lived in the Palais Coburg in Vienna. Their son Ferdinand became Tsar Ferdinand I of Bulgaria. When Prince August’s mother died in 1862, August became one of the largest landowners in Hungary. When he became father-in-law of Louise of Belgium, the sister of Stéphanie, Crown Princess of Austria, Emperor Franz Joseph I of Austria entitled him with the style Highness. August sponsored the erection of the Catholic church “Saint Augustin” in protestant Coburg, where he and his family were laid to rest in a crypt.

Prince of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld, Duke of Saxony

Ferdinand

Titular King of Portugal and the Algarves (since 1853)

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(Vienna, 29 October 1816 – Lisbon, 15 December 1885)
Ferdinand (Ferdinand August Franz Anton) married the widowed Maria II, who had been Queen of Portugal since 1826. The marriage was arranged by his uncle, King Léopold of the Belgians. Maria became Queen at the age of seven, but her uncle Miguel was regent and wanted the crown for himself. Maria’s father gave up the crown of Brazil in order to fight against his brother, and by 1834 Maria regained the crown. Although she was the Queen Regnant, she and Ferdinand faced her political and social challenges together. Ferdinand played an important part in Portuguese history, reigning during his wife’s pregnancies and as a Regent for his minor son Pedro until 1855. While giving birth to their eleventh child, Maria and the child died. Fourteen years later Ferdinand refused the offer to ascend the throne of Spain. He later remarried to Elisa Hensler, an actress, who was made Countess of Edla by Ernst II, Duke of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha, a cousin of Ferdinand.

Dom Fernando II King of Portugal and the Algarves (since 1837)
Royal Consort of Portugal (1836 – 1837)
Prince of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld (Koháry), Duke of Saxony
Prince of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha (Koháry), Duke of Saxony (since 1826)

Victoria

Duchess of Nemours (since 1840)

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(Vienna, 14 February 1822 – Claremont House, England, 10 December 1857)
Victoria (Victoria Franziska Antonia Juliane Luise) was the daughter of Prince Ferdinand of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha and Maria Antonia Koháry de Csábrág. In 1840 she married Louis d’Orléans, the Duke of Nemours. She inherited the paternal estates in Slovakia and Hungary when her father died in 1851. Victoria died shortly after the birth of her daughter Blanche.

Princess of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld, Duchess of Saxony
Princess of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha (Koháry), Duchess of Saxony (since 1826)

Leopold Franz Julius

Prince of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha (Koháry), Duke of Saxony (since 1826)

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(Vienna, 31 January 1824 – Vienna, 20 May 1884)
Leopold Franz Julius was the youngest son of Prince Ferdinand of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha and Mária Antónia Koháry de Csábrág. As it was unlikely he would succeed to the crown, he took on a military position in the Austrian Army, where he later became a Major General. Leopold was a potential husband for Isabel II of Spain. Spain had been the scene of Great Power rivalry since 1815 and all the Great Powers exerted their influence by supporting different candidates. Because the Saxe-Coburg family was perceived as closely linked to British interests, the other European powers would not tolerate such a union. Leopold therefore married Constanze Geiger, a singer and actress, who was made Freifrau von Ruttenstein by Leopold’s uncle Ernst II, Duke of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha. The marriage was considered unequal and their son unacknowledged.

Prince of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld (Koháry), Duke of Saxony

Dom Fernando II

King of Portugal

Ferdinand

Titular King of Portugal and the Algarves (since 1853)

(Vienna, 29 October 1816 – Lisbon, 15 December 1885)
Ferdinand (Ferdinand August Franz Anton) married the widowed Maria II, who had been Queen of Portugal since 1826. The marriage was arranged by his uncle, King Léopold of the Belgians. Maria became Queen at the age of seven, but her uncle Miguel was regent and wanted the crown for himself. Maria’s father gave up the crown of Brazil in order to fight against his brother, and by 1834 Maria regained the crown. Although she was the Queen Regnant, she and Ferdinand faced her political and social challenges together. Ferdinand played an important part in Portuguese history, reigning during his wife’s pregnancies and as a Regent for his minor son Pedro until 1855. While giving birth to their eleventh child, Maria and the child died. Fourteen years later Ferdinand refused the offer to ascend the throne of Spain. He later remarried to Elisa Hensler, an actress, who was made Countess of Edla by Ernst II, Duke of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha, a cousin of Ferdinand.

Dom Fernando II King of Portugal and the Algarves (since 1837)
Royal Consort of Portugal (1836 – 1837)
Prince of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld (Koháry), Duke of Saxony
Prince of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha (Koháry), Duke of Saxony (since 1826)

Maria

The Queen of Portugal and the Algarves (since 1834)

(São Cristóvão Palace, Rio de Janeiro, United Kingdom of Portugal, Brazil and the Algarves, 4 April 1819 – Necessidades Palace, Lisbon, Kingdom of Portugal, 15 November 1853)
April 1819 – Necessidades Palace, Lisbon, Kingdom of Portugal, 15 November 1853)
Maria (Maria da Glória Joana Carlota Leopoldina da Cruz Francisca Xavier de Paula Isidora Micaela Gabriela Rafaela Gonzaga) was the daughter of the future King of Portugal Pedro IV and his first wife Maria Leopoldina, Archduchess of Austria. He declared himself first Emperor of Brazil as Peter I in 1822. Pedro IV planned to marry Maria to his brother Miguel, who was to act as a regent until his niece and designated wife would be of age. But Miguel began a reign of terror that lasted until he was forced to abdicate in 1834. Maria was then restored to the throne. In 1836 she married Ferdinand Prince of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha (Koháry). He received the title of Titular King in 1837 upon the birth of their first child Peter. Maria died young after giving birth to eleven children.

Infanta of Portugal
Princess of Grão-Pará (1825 – 1826)
Duchess of Oporto (since 1833)

Pedro

Dom Pedro V The King of Portugal and the Algarves (since 1853)

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(Palace of Necessidades, Lisbon, 16 September 1837 – Lisbon, 11 November 1861)
Pedro (Dom Pedro de Alcântara Maria Fernando Miguel Rafael Gonzaga Xavier João António Leopoldo Víctor Francisco de Assis Júlio Amélio) was the oldest son of Queen Maria II and her de jure uxoris Ferdinand II, and was heir apparent. During his reign he continued the work of his mother and father, making badly needed improvements to the country’s infrastructure and in the advancement of public health. The major problem at the time were the outbreaks of cholera and typhoid fever. When the King visited victims of these epidemics in hospital, he and two of his brothers were contaminated and died in 1861. Pedro married Stephanie Princess of Hohenzollern-Sigmaringen, the daughter of Karl Anton, Prince of Hohenzollern-Sigmaringen and Princess Josephine of Baden in 1858, but in 1859 she died very young from diphtheria. As the couple had no children, the Portuguese throne passed to Pedro’s younger brother Luís.

Príncipe Réal
Duke of Braganza
Infante of Portugal
Prince de Saxe-Coburg and Gotha (Koháry), Duke of Saxony

Luís

Dom Luís I King of Portugal and the Algarves (since 1861)

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(Lisbon, 31 October 1838 – Cascais, 19 October 1889)
Luís (Luís Filipe Maria Fernando Pedro de Alcântara António Miguel Rafael Gabriel Gonzaga Xavier Francisco de Assis João Augusto Júlio Valfando) was the second son of Queen Maria II and her de jure uxoris Ferdinand II. When his brother Pedro V died in 1861, he succeeded to the throne of Portugal and the Algarves. He married Princess Maria Pia of Savoy, daughter of Victor Emmanuel II of Italy and Maria Adelaide of Austria. They had two sons. Luís I was interested in the sciences, but was never a talented politician. During the last years of his reign, Portugal was stagnant and losing power, with rising anti-monarch sentiments in the population.

Duke of Oporto and Viseu (since 1846)
Infante of Portugal
Prince of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha (Koháry), Duke of Saxony

João

Duque of Beja

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(Lisbon, 16 March 1842 – Santa Maria de Belém, 27 December 1861)
João (Dom João Maria Fernando Pedro de Alcántara Miguel Rafael Gabriel Leopoldo Carlos António Gregorio Francisco de Assis Borja Gonzaga Félix) received a military education and became Colonel of a Cavalry Regiment. He was on a trip to England and France with his brothers Luís and Fernando, when they heard that Pedro V was dying. After Pedro V died, Luís Duke of Oporto became King Luís I and João became heir apparent to the throne. One month later João died of the same disease that had killed Pedro and Fernando.

Infante of Portugal
Prince of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha, Duke of Saxony

Maria Ana

Princess of Saxony

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(Lisbon, 21 August 1843 – Dresden, 5 February 1884)
Maria Ana (Maria Ana Fernanda Leopoldina Micaela Rafaela Gabriela Carlota Antónia Júlia Vitória Praxedes Francisca de Assis Gonzaga) was the oldest daughter of Queen Maria II and her de jure uxoris Ferdinand II. When her mother died, Maria Ana became the “First Lady” of the royal court of Portugal at the age of ten. She held this position for five years, until King Pedro V married Stephanie Princess of Hohenzollern-Sigmaringen in 1858. One year later Maria was married to George Prince of Saxony (1832–1904), who later became George I of Saxony. Although the marriage was not a happy one, the couple had eight children.

Infanta of Portugal
Princess of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha (Koháry), Duchess of Saxony

Antónia

Dowager Princess of Hohenzollern (since 1905)

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(Lisbon 17 February 1845 – Sigmaringen, 27 December 1913)
Antónia (Antónia Maria Fernanda Micaela Gabriela Rafaela Francisca de Assis Ana Gonzaga Silvéria Júlia Augusta) married Leopold, Prince of Hohenzollern-Sigmaringen in 1861. The couple had three sons.

Infanta of Portugal
Princess of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha (Koháry), Duchess of Saxony
Hereditary Princess of Hohenzollern and Sigmaringen (since 1861)
Princess of Hohenzollern (since 1885)

Fernando

Infante of Portugal

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(Lisbon, 23 July 1846 – Lisbon, 6 November 1861)
Fernando (Fernando Maria Luís), the fourth son of Queen Maria II of Portugal and her husband Fernando II, served as a Lieutenant in the Fifth Battalion of Hunters of the Portuguese army. In 1861, he died at the age of 18 from either cholera or typhoid fever.

Prince of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha (Koháry), Duke of Saxony

Augusto

Duke of Coimbra

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(Lisbon, 4 November 1847 – Lisbon, 26 September 1889)
Augusto (Augusto Maria Miguel Gabriel Rafael Agrícola Francisco de Assis Gonzaga Pedro de Alcântara Loiola) was the fifth son of Queen Maria II of Portugal and her husband Fernando II. He had a career in the Portuguese Army and became General of a Division. He died in Lisbon unmarried and without children in 1889.

Infante of Portugal
Prince of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha (Koháry), Duke of Saxony

Dom Pedro V

King of Portugal and the Algarves

Pedro

Dom Pedro V The King of Portugal and the Algarves (since 1853)

(Palace of Necessidades, Lisbon, 16 September 1837 – Lisbon, 11 November 1861)
Pedro (Dom Pedro de Alcântara Maria Fernando Miguel Rafael Gonzaga Xavier João António Leopoldo Víctor Francisco de Assis Júlio Amélio) was the oldest son of Queen Maria II and her de jure uxoris Ferdinand II, and was heir apparent. During his reign he continued the work of his mother and father, making badly needed improvements to the country’s infrastructure and in the advancement of public health. The major problem at the time were the outbreaks of cholera and typhoid fever. When the King visited victims of these epidemics in hospital, he and two of his brothers were contaminated and died in 1861. Pedro married Stephanie Princess of Hohenzollern-Sigmaringen, the daughter of Karl Anton, Prince of Hohenzollern-Sigmaringen and Princess Josephine of Baden in 1858, but in 1859 she died very young from diphtheria. As the couple had no children, the Portuguese throne passed to Pedro’s younger brother Luís.

Príncipe Réal
Duke of Braganza
Prince de Saxe-Coburg and Gotha (Koháry), Duke of Saxony

Stephanie

Queen of Portugal and the Algarves (since 1858)

(Schloss Krauchenwies, Sigmaringen 15 July 1837 – Lisbon, 17 July 1859)
Stephanie (Stephanie Josepha Friederike Wilhelmine Antonia) was the oldest daughter of Karl Anton, Prince of Hohenzollern, head of the House of Hohenzollern-Sigmaringen, and his wife Princess Josephine of Baden. In 1858, she was married to Pedro V, King of Portugal. In 1859 she died at the age of 22 of diphtheria. The couple had no children.

Princess of Hohenzollern-Sigmaringen

Luís I

King of Portugal and the Algarves

Luís

Dom Luís I King of Portugal and the Algarves (since 1861)

(Lisbon, 31 October 1838 – Cascais, 19 October 1889)
Luís (Luís Filipe Maria Fernando Pedro de Alcântara António Miguel Rafael Gabriel Gonzaga Xavier Francisco de Assis João Augusto Júlio Valfando) was the second son of Queen Maria II and her de jure uxoris Ferdinand II. When his brother Pedro V died in 1861, he succeeded to the throne of Portugal and the Algarves. He married Princess Maria Pia of Savoy, daughter of Victor Emmanuel II of Italy and Maria Adelaide of Austria. They had two sons. Luís I was interested in the sciences, but was never a talented politician. During the last years of his reign, Portugal was stagnant and losing power, with rising anti-monarch sentiments in the population.

Infante of Portugal
Duke of Oporto and Viseu (since 1846)
Prince of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha (Koháry), Duke of Saxony

Maria Pia

Queen Maria Pia of Portugal (since 1908)

(Turin, Italy, 14 February 1847 – 5 July 1911)
Maria Pia was the daughter of Victor Emmanuel II, the first King of Italy and his wife Adelaide of Austria. She was known to be extravagant, but was better known for her charitable works in aid of the people, who nicknamed her “angel of charity.” After the death of her husband, she supported her son Carlos and his wife in acting as a regent while they were abroad. She was deeply shocked by the Revolution following the assassination of her son, King Carlos I and her grandson, the Crown Prince in 1908. She left the country and lived in exile in her home country of Italy.

Princess of Savoy
The Queen of Portugal and the Algarves (since 1862)
The Dowager Queen of Portugal and the Algarves (since 1889)

Carlos

Carlos I
King of Portugal and the Algarves (since 1889)

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(Lisbon, 28 September 1863 – Lisbon, 1 February 1908)
Carlos (Carlos Fernando Luís Maria Víctor Miguel Rafael Gabriel Gonzaga Xavier Francisco de Assis José Simão) was the oldest son of King Luis and Queen Maria Pia. He was raised to fulfill his role as the head of government in a constitutional Portuguese monarchy. He visited Italy, England, France, and Germany, to find out about the modernisation these countries. His father also toured Europe and in his absence Carlos practiced ruling. He married Amélie Princess of Orléans, oldest daughter of Philippe, Count of Paris and Princess Marie Isabelle of Orléans, pretender to the throne of France. They had three children. A revolt ensued because the people were becoming disenchanted that Portugal had failed to extend its colonial territories according to opponent British interests and anti-monarchic sentiments was spilling over from France. King Carlos I and the heir apparent, Luís Filipe, were killed on their way home from the celebration of a jubilee in 1908.

Prince of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha (Koháry), Duke of Saxony

Afonso

Duke of Oporto

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(Ajuda Royal Palace, Lisbon, 31 July 1865– Naples, Italy, 21 February 1920)
Afonso (Afonso Henrique Maria Luís Pedro de Alcântara Carlos Humberto Amadeu Fernando António Miguel Rafael Gabriel Gonzaga Xavier Francisco de Assis João Augusto Júlio Volfando Inácio) was the oldest son of King Luis and Queen Maria Pia. He reached the rank of General in the Portuguese Army, and in 1896 he was the last Governor of Portuguese India to be appointed Viceroy of India. After the abolition of the Portuguese monarchy in 1910, Afonso went into exile, first to Gibraltar with his nephew, the deposed King Manuel II; then to Turin, where he stayed with his mother, Queen Maria Pia. After her death he moved to Naples, Italy. In 1917, he entered into a morganatic marriage with a twice-divorced and once-widowed American.

Dom Afonso Infante of Portugal
Prince Royal of Portugal (since 1908)
Prince of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha (Koháry), Duke of Saxony

Carlos I

King of Portugal and the Algarves

Carlos

Carlos I
King of Portugal and the Algarves (since 1889)

(Lisbon, 28 September 1863 – Lisbon, 1 February 1908)
Carlos (Carlos Fernando Luís Maria Víctor Miguel Rafael Gabriel Gonzaga Xavier Francisco de Assis José Simão) was the oldest son of King Luis and Queen Maria Pia. He was raised to fulfill his role as the head of government in a constitutional Portuguese monarchy. He visited Italy, England, France, and Germany, to find out about the modernisation these countries. His father also toured Europe and in his absence Carlos practiced ruling. He married Amélie Princess of Orléans, oldest daughter of Philippe, Count of Paris and Princess Marie Isabelle of Orléans, pretender to the throne of France. They had three children. A revolt ensued because the people were becoming disenchanted that Portugal had failed to extend its colonial territories according to opponent British interests and anti-monarchic sentiments was spilling over from France. King Carlos I and the heir apparent, Luís Filipe, were killed on their way home from the celebration of a jubilee in 1908.

Prince of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha (Koháry), Duke of Saxony

Amélie

The Dowager Queen of Portugal and the Algarves (since 1908)

(London-Twickenham, 28 September 1865 – Le Chesnay, France, 25 October 1951)
Amélie (Marie Amélie Louise Hélène) was the daughter of Philippe, Count of Paris, and his wife Marie Isabelle Princess d’Orléans. She was born when her parents were in exile. In 1886, she married Prince Carlos, who succeeded his father as King three years later. Her social commitment and personal popularity softened some of the criticism stemming from the political unrest and a bankrupt economy, but it was not enough, and she lost her husband and her oldest son in an act of violence in 1908. After the deposition of her youngest son and the nomination of a Portuguese Republic, she went into exile, first to Great Britain and then to France.

Princess of Orléans
The Princess Royal of Portugal, Duchess of Braganza (since 1886)
The Queen of Portugal and the Algarves (since 1889)

Manoel

King Manoel II of Portugal and the Algarves (since 1910)

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(Belém Royal Palace, Lisbon, 15 November 1889 – Fulwell, United Kingdom, 2 July 1932)
Manoel (Manoel Maria Filipe Carlos Amélio Luís Miguel Rafael Gabriel Gonzaga Francisco de Assis Eugénio) was the second son of King Carlos I of Portugal and Queen Amélie. He strived for a military career and was well educated, but was not like his brother, who had his sights set on ruling the country. Manoel was interested in literature, music, and history. After the assassination of his father King Carlos I and the heir apparent Luís Filipe, Manoel suddenly had to fulfill the duties of a monarch. His reign, during which he tried to balance Republican, Socialist and Monarchical tendencies which caused uproar, ended with the abolition of monarchy in the revolution of 5 October 1910. His exile was enforced by the new Portuguese government. In 1913 he married his cousin Auguste Victoria, the daughter of Prince William of Hohenzollern-Sigmaringen and his wife Maria Teresa of Bourbon-Two Sicilies. Manoel and his wife had no children. Even in exile, Manoel demonstrated his patriotism. He transferred his possessions to the Portuguese State and expressed his wish to be buried in Portugal. In 1932, the current Portuguese head of state António Oliveira de Salazar authorized a state funeral and Manoel’s burial in Lisbon.

Infante Manoel of Portugal
Prince of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha (Koháry), Duke of Saxony
The Duke of Beira (since 1889)
The King of Portugal and the Algarves (since 1908)

Luís Filipe
The Prince Royal, Duke of Braganza Marquis of Vila Viçosa, Count of Barcelos, Count of Ourém, Count of Arraiolos, Count of Neiva (since 1889)

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(Lisbon, 21 March 1887 – Lisbon, 1 February 1908)
Luís Filipe (Luís Filipe Maria Carlos Amélio Francisco Víctor Manuel António Lourenço Miguel Rafael Gabriel Gonzaga Xavier Francisco de Assis Bento) prepared himself to some day be the King of Portugal, and so he acted as regent of the kingdom in 1907 while his father was on stately visits abroad. The same year he made an official visit to the Portuguese colonies in Africa. But in 1908 he was fatally injured in an attack by two members of the Carbonária, a revolutionary activist group that also killed his father, King Carlos.

The Prince of Beira, Duke of Barcelos
Prince of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha (Koháry), Duke of Saxony

Manoel II

King of Portugal and the Algarves

Manoel

King Manoel II of Portugal and the Algarves (since 1910)

(Belém Royal Palace, Lisbon, 15 November 1889 – Fulwell, United Kingdom, 2 July 1932)
Manoel (Manoel Maria Filipe Carlos Amélio Luís Miguel Rafael Gabriel Gonzaga Francisco de Assis Eugénio) was the second son of King Carlos I of Portugal and Queen Amélie. He strived for a military career and was well educated, but was not like his brother, who had his sights set on ruling the country. Manoel was interested in literature, music, and history. After the assassination of his father King Carlos I and the heir apparent Luís Filipe, Manoel suddenly had to fulfill the duties of a monarch. His reign, during which he tried to balance Republican, Socialist and Monarchical tendencies which caused uproar, ended with the abolition of monarchy in the revolution of 5 October 1910. His exile was enforced by the new Portuguese government. In 1913 he married his cousin Auguste Victoria, the daughter of Prince William of Hohenzollern-Sigmaringen and his wife Maria Teresa of Bourbon-Two Sicilies. Manoel and his wife had no children. Even in exile, Manoel demonstrated his patriotism. He transferred his possessions to the Portuguese State and expressed his wish to be buried in Portugal. In 1932, the current Portuguese head of state António Oliveira de Salazar authorized a state funeral and Manoel’s burial in Lisbon.

Infante Manoel of Portugal
Prince of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha (Koháry), Duke of Saxony
The Duke of Beira (since 1889)
The King of Portugal and the Algarves (since 1908)

Augusta Victoria

The Countess Douglas (since 1939)

(Potsdam, 19 August 1890 – Eigeltingen, Germany, 29 August 1966)
Princess Augusta Victoria of Hohenzollern, a German princess, married King Manoel II of Portugal in 1913. They left his country and lived abroad. As the monarchy was never reinstalled in Portugal, she never reigned, but lived with her husband in Great Britain. Seven years after the death of King Manuel II, she married her second husband, Count Robert Douglas. He died in 1955 and Auguste survived him by eleven years.

Princess of Hohenzollern
The Queen of Portugal and the Algarves (since 1913)
The Dowager Queen of Portugal and the Algarves (since 1932)